The concept of justice
Within the humanistic bioethical paradigm - implies the implementation of a social program and in accordance with it equal access to public goods, receipt of biomedical services, availability of pharmacological agents necessary to maintain health.
There are complementary ethical categories. Suffering is a human emotional state caused by difficulties that exceed one’s physical, mental, and spiritual capacities; physical or moral anguish, pain. Suffering is regarded in ethics as a school of life, because it:
- teaches truth and justice,
- purifies the soul, pacifies the conscience,
- ennobles man, being a source of moral values,
- hardens the will, fortitude, and persistence. The doctor’s primary mission is to free his patients from suffering. This is why a doctor cannot accept and become accustomed to the patient’s problems. He must know what the causes of Suffering, how it manifests itself and how to help the patient to overcome it. However, Suffering is still an indicator and symptom of the disease, so the doctor must be careful in trying to alleviate the patient’s Suffering There is a correlation between Suffering and pain: pain is experienced by the body, while Suffering is experienced by the person; pain does not necessarily lead to Suffering, a person can experience Suffering without pain; pain is accompanied by Suffering when it is unbearable, does not stop, inspires fear or disgust; pain is overcome if it has meaning; not only the one experiencing pain, but also those who empathize with him/her experiences Suffering
Pity sympathy, caused by the misfortune, grief, suffering of another person, coupled with a desire to help him. С. - The ability to suffer with another, to sympathize, empathize, and pity him- or herself is an inherent quality of a doctor, which is based on a highly developed emotional and sensual side of the personality. For a doctor, it is an element of his or her pro-professionalism. Moral value of Compassion is determined by the degree of its effectiveness. Forms of Compassion can be: support another by word and deed; charity; the ability to forgive; mercy (for example, “nurse of mercy”).
(from Latin sub - under and ordinatio - putting in order)
A system of service subordination of junior medical personnel to middle and senior ones, based on the rules of service discipline.
(from Latin surrogatus - substituting for another)
A woman who carries someone else’s embryo, a fetus implanted into her body (fertilized by her husband’s sperm, the egg of another woman who can not or does not want to carry a child). Ethical problems arise due to mutual claims of the genetic parents and the surrogate mother about the “belonging” of the born child.
This is a fundamental value and principle of medical ethics, which includes keeping information concerning the patient confidential. The principle is based on the relationship of trust between doctor and patient. The concept of Doctor-patient confidentiality includes:
- information about the patient, received from him/her, his/her relatives, close people;
- medical knowledge, which should not be trusted by the patient and other uninitiated people. The requirement of preservation of Doctor-patient confidentiality is a categorical imperative of medicine, acting as a parameter of the moral culture of a doctor as a professional and person. Preservation of Doctor-patient confidentiality One of displays of medical duty, demanding from the doctor the moral-targeted and professionally-literate care of honor and dignity of patients and their relatives. It is an adequate moral and ethical response of the doctor to the trust and frankness of the patient, ensuring the reliability of a trusting relationship between the doctor and the patient.