Ethics of nonviolence
This is an ethical concept based on the humanistic attitude toward life as an absolute value and the principle of non-resistance to evil with violence, expressed in one of the commandments of Jesus Christ: “Do not resist evil” (Matthew 5:39). Religious and moral doctrine of non-resistance to evil defended Leo Tolstoy, who believed non-resistance is the only effective form of struggle against evil, whose meaning is to reduce the “number” of evil and increase the “number” of good in the world. The main question is in what ways and means to achieve this - by force or by non-violent struggle. Supporters of NGOs see it as the most effective and adequate means of confronting evil, as the only possible real way to justice, because all other ways (from the position of force) were not effective, because retaliatory violence does not reduce, but increases the amount of evil in the world, creates the effect of “boomerang of evil” (L. Tolstoy), according to which the evil you have done will certainly come back to you. Ethics of nonviolence is not seen as cowardice and encouragement of evil, but as the ability to resist and fight evil with dignity, without dropping yourself and without lowering to the level of evil. Proponents of a violent form of struggle against evil, without justifying violence, regard it as a forced necessity, considering the main drawback of Ethics of nonviolence ethics the danger of impunity for evil. The opposition of these positions is currently manifested in the resolution of many topical issues:
- the effectiveness and moral permissibility of various ways to combat terrorism;
- the attitude to the conduct of wars and the position of pacifism, which calls for a complete rejection of any participation in any wars and active resistance to them;
- the attitude to the death penalty, etc. For bioethics, Ethics of nonviolence is of interest from the point of view of ensuring the human right to life, in particular when dealing with euthanasia, the problem of embryo rights, etc.
This is a field of ethical knowledge that, in contrast to the fundamental-theoretical, takes into account the specifics of the object and purpose as special normative-value subsystems that specify the fundamental-theoretical principles and norms of morality in relation to specific situations and spheres of human life. It is based not only on the fundamentals of moral theory, but also on a set of extra-ethical knowledge about morals (socio-economic, psychological, pedagogical, medical, etc.) and has a strong technological aspect (suggesting development of ways and methods of implementation of applied knowledge in practice in the form of projects, programs, standards, models, codes, etc.). It includes:
- a strong technological aspect (it implies development of ways to implement applied knowledge in practice as projects, programs, standards, models, codes, etc.);
- it redefines traditional and new values and imperatives moral notions, meanings and principles of activity and management in some professional-specific areas as well as in interdisciplinary spheres. The structure of Applied ethics includes the following elements:
- environmental ethics and bioethics, which consider the norms of human behavior as part of an ecosystem in relation to the environment and Other Living;
- ethics of citizenship, which develops the standards of human behavior as a citizen in relation to society;
- ethics of interpersonal communication, which defines the principles, rules and standards of human relations to a person;
- situational ethics, which develops practical recommendations applicable to specific situations and areas of human activity;
- professional ethics - a system of moral principles and principles of conduct in response to specific situations and areas of human life. The most important role in the formation of applied ethical knowledge is played by humanitarian and ethical expertise and modeling of research projects, targeted formation of new professional skills and knowledge, necessary intellectual-psychological and moral qualities that allow making the right decisions and making moral choices in specific situations.